Bone Grafting in New Jersey

What is Bone Grafting? 

Bone grafting is a surgical procedure commonly used in dentistry and reconstructive surgery. It involves transplanting bone tissue from one area of the body (or occasionally from a donor) to another, typically to repair or rebuild bone that has been damaged or lost due to dental injury, disease, or other conditions.

Potential Consequences of Tooth and Jaw Bone Loss

  • Problems with remaining teeth, including misalignment, drifting, loosening, and loss
  • Collapsed facial profile
  • Limited lip support
  • Skin wrinkling around the mouth
  • Distortion of other facial features
  • Jaw (TMJ or temporomandibular joint) pain, facial pain, and headaches
  • Difficulty speaking and communicating
  • Inadequate nutrition as a result of the inability to chew properly and painlessly
  • Sinus expansion

There are several types of bone grafts:

  1. Autograft: Bone taken from one part of the patient’s body and transplanted to another part. This is often preferred because it reduces the risk of rejection and disease transmission.

  2. Allograft: Bone taken from a donor (usually cadaveric) and transplanted into the patient. This requires careful matching to reduce the risk of rejection.

  3. Xenograft: Bone taken from another species (e.g., bovine or porcine) and processed for transplantation into a human.

  4. Synthetic grafts: Made from materials like calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, or polymers. These materials provide a scaffold for new bone growth.

Bone grafting is used in various medical contexts, including:

  • Repairing fractures that fail to heal properly
  • Filling in bone voids or defects caused by trauma or disease
  • Facilitating bone fusion in spinal surgery or joint replacements
  • Rebuilding bone lost to periodontal disease in dental procedures

The success of a bone graft depends on factors like the patient’s overall health, the quality and quantity of the graft material, and proper surgical technique. After transplantation, the body gradually replaces the graft material with new bone tissue through a process called osseointegration

Bone Graft Substitutes

As a substitute to using real bone many synthetic materials are available as safe and proven alternatives, including:

Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM)/Demineralized Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft (DFDBA) – This product is processed allograft bone, containing collagen, proteins, and growth factors that are extracted from the allograft bone. It is available in the form of powder, putty, chips, or as a gel that can be injected through a syringe.

Graft Composites – Graft composites consist of other bone graft materials and growth factors to achieve the benefits of a variety of substances. Some combinations may include: collagen/ceramic composite, which closely resembles the composition of natural bone, DBM combined with bone marrow cells, which aid in the growth of new bone, or a collagen/ceramic/autograft composite.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins – Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are proteins naturally produced in the body that promote and regulate bone formation and healing.

Synthetic materials also have the advantage of not requiring a second procedure to harvest bone, reducing risk and pain. Each bone grafting option has its own risks and benefits. Your doctor will determine which type of bone graft material best suited to your particular needs.